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THE COLOUR INHERITANCE

OF GOULDIAN FINCHES

PART 3: BODY

THE BODY COLOUR INHERITANCE

OF GOULDIAN FINCHES

In the history of the Gouldian Finches in captivity, reports have often been made of spectacular colour variations. Most of these phenomena could not be confirmed as mutations. Maybe it were just modifications? Here are the common and confirmed mutations and combinations listed and described: Gouldian Finch males come in following visible body colours:  Normal (green), Dilute (single-factor pastel green), Aqua seagreen, Aqua Ivory, Cinnamon, Yellow (double-factor pastel green), Blue, Pastel (single-factor pastel blue), Silver (double-factor pastel blue) and Ino (Lutino/Albino). Gouldian Finch females come in these visible body colours: Normal (Green), Aqua seagreen, Aqua Ivory, Cinnamon, Yellow, Blue, Silver and Ino (Lutino/Albino). Note: Some body colours affect the expression of certain head colours:  The yellow gene represses the expression of black colouration. The blue gene represses the red and orange colouration.
3. Aqua-body Two forms of inheritance are known of the aqua factor. In both the carotinoid is reduced with 50%. Therefore the green colour has changed to a sea green colour. This is particularly evident in the belly and back cover colour and to a lesser extent in the head color of a red head or orange head gouldian finches. 3-1 Aqua (Seagreen) The Aqua (Seagreen) mutation is autosomal recessive inherited. Males and females can be split (carrier) in Aqua (similiar to the blue factor). The aqua (seagreen) factor is on the same multiple mutation series as the blue factor and is dominant over blue factor. The order of dominace is Green - Aqua (Seagreen) - Blue. This means a green bird can be split (carrier) for aqua (seagreen) or blue and an aqua (seagreen) bird can be split (carrier) for The appearance is similiar to the aqua (ivory) factor. (3-2) 3-2 Aqua (Ivory) Aqua (ivory) is sex-linked recessive  inherited. When a male has only one chromosome for aqua (ivory) factor, it is split (carrier) in aqua (ivory). When a male has both (two) chromosomes for aqua (ivory) factor it is visible aqua (ivory). A female with one chromosome for aqua (ivory) is a visible aqua (ivory) gouldian finch. The appearance is similiar to the aqua (seagreen) factor. (3-1) 4. Cinnamon-body In the cinnamon factor is a change of the eumelanin is due to a slight oxidation. Therefor the eumelanin is not totally changed to black but to a brown colouring. The result is that the colour in the green series becomes more yellow hint and in the blue series this will lead to a paler blue bird. When a male has only one chromosome for cinnamon factor, it is split (carrier) in cinnamon. When a male has both (two) chromosomes for cinnamon factor it is visible cinnamon. A female with one chromosome for cinnamon is a visible cinnamon gouldian finch.
5. Yellow-body Yellow-body is sex-linked dominant to both normal-body (also sex-linked) and blue- body (not sex-linked). Males can be double-factor or single- factor yellow-bodies. Females can only be single-factor  yellow-bodies (= visible yellow birds). No Gouldian Finch can ever be split (carrier) for yellow-body. Yellow-body can occur in combination with any head or chest colour. When a male is single-factor for yellow-body and single- factor for normal-body (green) with a purple chest, it appears dilute-body (pastel-green). When a male is single-factor for yellow- body and single-factor for normal-body (green) with a white chest, he appears yellow body.  The yellow gene represses the expression of the black colour. Any area which would normally be black on a normal (green) bird appears white or off-white on a yellow bird. This is why genetically black-headed yellow birds appear to have white or near-white heads. 6. Blue-body Blue-body is autosomal recessive. Both male and females can be double-factor  (DF) and express the colour blue or single- factor (SF) and “split” for blue-body. Blue-body occurs when a bird carrying only sex chromosomes for the colour blue. Blue-body can occur in combination with any head or chest colour. Blue represses the expression of red and yellow. Blue birds with red or orange head will appear to have a salmon coloured head and the normally yellow belly appears . At a blue-body gouldian finch is the carotinoid reduced with 100 %. The blue factor is on the same multiple mutation series as the aqua (seagreen) factor. The aqua (seagreen factor is dominant over blue factor. The order of dominance is Green - Aqua (Seagreen) - Blue. This means a green bird can be split (carrier) for aqua (seagreen) or blue and an aqua (seagreen) bird can be split (carrier) for blue.
7. Pastel-(blue) body Pastel-(blue) body is a “yellow” X- chromosome with a “normal” X- chromosome and double-factor blue genes  in a purple chest bird. Obviously since two X-chromosomes are required for this to occur. Pastel-(blue)body can only be in males. Females can never be pastel-body. Because the yellow gene represses the expression of black colouration and because the normal and purple genes mute the effects of the yellow gene, any normally black areas on the bird will appear grey (as opposed to white), so black-head birds are visible grey-heads.
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2. Dilute Body (single factor pastel green) When a male is single-factor (SF) for normal body (green) and single factor for yellow body with a purple chest, visible we have dilute body (pastel green). If he is single-factor for normal body (green) equally single factor for yellow body but with a white chest, visible we have yellow body. A single factor pastel green body is also called dilute body. SF pastel green (sex-linked co-dominant inherited) is a “yellow” X-chromosome with a “normal” X-chromosome (=single factor pastel green body) in a purple chest bird. Due to the fact that we need for a dilute body two XX-chromosomes, dilute birds (pastel- green) can only be males. Females can never be dilute, because they only have one X-chromosome. Females can only be normal body (green) or yellow body. At a SF pastel green male the eumelanin is reduced with 50%. At a DF pastel green male it is 80-90% reduced. Because the yellow gene represses the expression of black colouration and because the normal and purple genes  mute the effects of the yellow gene, any normally black area on the bird will appear grey (as opposed to white), so the black head appears as grey head.
1. Normal Body (green) The normal body (green) colour is sex-linked and recessive to yellow-bodied (also sex-linked) but dominant to blue bodied (not sex-linked). Males can be double-factor (DF) or single-factor (SF). The normal body (green) can occur in combination with any head or chest colour.
8. Silver Body Silver body Gouldian Finches are birds with yellow body genes & blue body genes (= combination of 2 mutations). A single factor yellow body/double factor blue body male with a white chest will only appear in a silver body. A male with a purple chest will appear in a pastel blue body. Because the yellow gene represses the expression of black colouration and because the blue genes repress the expression of red and yellow, the entire body of the bird appears white or off-white in colour. The purple of the chest is not affected, however, and red or yellow head gouldian finches will have salmon coloured (but not white) heads. A gouldin finch which is nearly all white, one would need to call a genetically black head, white chest, yellow blue body gouldian finch. Males should preferably be double- factor yellow body to get the brightest silver colouring. 9. Ino Body (Lutino/Albino) In DF pastel green Gouldian finches, we are dealing with a reduction factor that reduces the pigment in the feathers. Only at the black eyes is still a pigmentation noted. In the case when in yellow gouldian finches red eyes are visible, is no longer spoken by yellow, but from Lutino Gouldian Finches. In lutinos the complete disappearance of the pigment in the feathers including the down is noticeable (deficiency of black eumelanin und phaeomelanin in the yellow line, while brown eumelanin is not complete reduced). If the blue factor is crossed in Lutino’s, we also can get Albino’s. This means that the disappearance of the pigment is transferred into the blue line. Therefore is an albino gouldian finch a combination of the lutino and blue factor. The Ino mutation is usually sex-linked recessive inherited. In past history of the ino mutation’s there has also been an autosomal recessive mutation. The majority if not all ino's today are sex linked recessive. Therefore the ino’s are also named as SL INO’s (= sex-linked ino’s). The lutino mutation is a ino gene on a green series gouldian finch, while a albino mutation is a ino gene on a blue series. In order to get an albino, both parents must carrying the blue gene. If breeding a lutino split (carrier) blue male with a green split blue female, the results will amongst other be albino females. If breeding a split (carrier) blue & split (carrier) ino male with a lutino split (carrier) blue female the results will amongst other be albino males. Ino x ino is a not recommended mating variety.