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In the 1920s Dr. Hans Duncker, an German avian geneticists, created by hybridizing yellow canary females with males of the South American carduelid specie red siskin (Carduelis cucullata). His aiming was the transfer of the red factor gene to  the canary birds. With much patience he did it successfully. Today, every red factor canary in lipochrom or melanin mutations is a further development of Dr. Hans Duncker’s successful work. It was very difficult, because hybrids are usually not fertile. After several generations of more complicated combinations of crossing, he bred the first fertile offsprings. By this time, the red factor gene of the red siskin carduelid was successfully transferred to the canaries. This was the first known successfully transgenic experiment in the ornithology. but the first really red canaries were produced in England until the early 1950s. Today, the red factor canaries delighted with all their developed mutations in lipochrom or melanin series bird breeders and bird keepers all over the world.
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The Red Siskin carduelid was the origin for the transfer of the red factor gene to the canary birds.
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