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...the way to special goals

   in your breeding stock

Most species in nature have the same appearance. A result of the evolution wich has carved the species into a pattern that works. Appeared a mutation it is always different from the normal outlook. (albinos, pied and other colours). Most of these mutations will starve to death, if the new appearance don’t have a beneficial for something better (mainly in the case of physical changes), or they become quickly more a prey of predators because of their special conspicuity (in the case of colour changes). This is the way in nature. In nature, but basicly also in captivity, natural appearance is usually controlled by dominant genes. Genes for a mutation are also present, but because of the above- mentioned fact it is very rare that a mutation occurs because of the natural mating. Only through a strict selection by the breeder is it possible, to increase the gene pool to a special goal. This work is based on much experience in addition patience and perseverance. When a new mutation is discovered or other goals are focused the breeder used controlled breeding methods for successful results.

          What is Inbreeding?

In the fact is inbreeding a much term and due to the breeding methods and the probably resulting facts not recommended. In order to strengthened a mutation or the high quality of a breeding stock a breeder will mate together closely related animals which he knows, or can assume to be, of similar inheritance. After the first offsprings of a pair, in the next breeding season the father will be mated to the daughter and the mother to the son and also brother to sister. In advantageous conditions it may be so keep up for many generations. But an Inbreeding must be carried out with great care due to the breeding method, because it often tends to make any hidden bad points visible that might not at first have been known. Lastly this negative results are present in the new strain and can be inherited. If negative characteristics occur, every animal with faulty sign must be rigorously excluded from any further breeding programmes. The experience shows that often offsprings from inbreeding with a perfect exhibition appearance have quickly died out as a result of additional negative heredity such as poor health. An inbreeding is never the choice for develop to a good quality stock in the long run.

       What is Line Breeding?

The term line breeding is not strict defined and can have different methods in practice. 1. It is an altered form of inbreeding, whereby the mating is not as closely as described above, but involves the mating of less closely related animals. (e. g. cousins together, uncle to the niece, aunt to the nephew). 2. The building of a bloodline of a particularly outstanding animal, first paired with their own daughters, and afterwards with the resulting granddaughters from this mating, etc., so as to consolidate the "desired" gene in the line. 3. Working with different and proofed quality lines within a breed. If a outcross is needed it can be taken from known "material" from one of known lines  (to avoid the introduction of new and unknown genes from stranger an unknown lines).
All of the above-mentioned possibilities are ultimately a modification of direct inbreeding, but the explanations in (1) and (2), however, have more in common from a direct inbreeding concept. In the last statement (3) it becomes clear that through different controlled lines and possible out-crosses in further  generations the introducing of not very closely related genetic material into the wanted breeding line is practiced. This reduce the probability of an individual being subject to disease or genetic abnormalities.
Definition Out-crossing                          (also called Out-breeding) It is the practice of introducing unrelated material into a breeding line. The increasing of genetic multitude reduce the probability of an individual being subject to disease or genetic abnormalities. Definition of Bloodline As a bloodline is understood the heritage or ancestry. This includes not only the parents, also the grandparents, great-grandparents, and so on. If we talk about the animal bloodline, can this be an important selling point, when the characteristics are brilliant.
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