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THE OPTICAL BLUEFACTOR  &

AZUL FACTOR IN CANARIES

In the breeding of melanin canaries is the handling of additional factors inevitable and also important for a better appearance of the bird. Additional factors change not only inheritance rules, but also the appearance of the eumelanin and the paeomelanin. The “Optical Blue Factor” and the “Azul Factor” are the most important factors in the last decades, that had led to a wave of colour changes in colour canaries. These two factors have almost the same appearance, but differ by interesting details. Both factors are autosomal recessive hereditary. Note: The optical blue factor is not to be confused with the term: “Blue Canary - a white-grounded melanin canary”

How both factors do work

in Canaries?

- Both, the “Optical Blue Factor and the “Azul Factor” alter   the structure in the feather and produce an optical effect. This means that the light is broken and returned. - The “Optical Blue Factor” and the “Azul Factor” cause a repression of the brown (phaeo) melanins. Therefore, these factors are also referred to as a "brown   displacement factor" or a "phaeomelanin displacement”. The clearest effect is to be found in classical and non-  classical canaries of the black series, which are then free of brown parts as required by the standard. Therefore, the melanin striations are shown more clearly.

Further statements and reviews

about Canaries with Azul Factor

Further special Characteristics and

Differences of the Optical Blue

Factor & the Azul Factor

- The presence of the optical blue factor ist first seen after the first juvenile moult. The azul factor already occurs in the nest. So is the phaeomelanin, visible in the classic birds from the black series before the first moult as a brown phaeomelanin, in azul nestlings direct transformed from brown to grey. In optical blue factor canaries the effect is first seen after the moult. Note: There are also exceptions in azul birds. In some birds brown phaeomelanin remains in the black series. This is probably due to the amount of phaeomelanin, present in the bird. However after the first moult the melanin also changes from brown to grey. - The optical effect differs from the optical blue factor and the azul factor. The grey from the optical blue factor is flashing. The grey from the azulactor is mat.  - In some cases it is even so, that if the blue factor works very well, it is hardly possible to determine whether it is a bird with or without azul factor. - In contrast to the azul factor, which was established by gene transfer from a siskin, the optical blue factor is a bird's own factor.
- Azul Canaries have a slightly milder body colour relative to a classic bird. - Azul canaries have a slower growth over classical birds, but without any notable disadvantages. - When introducing the azul factor into a stock, all offsprings are inheriting the azul factor. But only when the double factor azul is present, we get really birds without brown phaeomelanin. Is only the single factor azul present, the bird is still quite brown. Despite the existing of phaeo- melanin they are usable breeding birds. - It is not correct that the azulactor reduces the presence of phaeomelanin. Also that the azul factor would be the same as a monomelanine canary bird. In many monomelanin canaries is the azulactor also present. - The colour of the beak in azul canaries is not affected by the azul factor. Referring of the horn parts are many unknown factors and environmental influences that determine the colour.