FOR BIRDS

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is also known as the antineurotic factor because of its physiological function in nerve activity. A good digestive system and the carbohydrate metabolism depend greatly on sufficient vitamin B1. The richer the food is in carbohydrates the higher the vitamin B1 content in the diet must be. Vitamin B1 is also important for the functioning of the heart and muscles. The supply of vitamin B1 should be increased in situations requiring a faster metabolism such as pregnancy, brooding or illness. In the case of gastro-intestinal diseases, which are often a factor affecting the availability of thiamine as they reduce absorption by the intestinal wall, the diet should be also be enriched. A deficiency of vitamin B1 lead to incoordination, fatigue, weakness, seizures, resulting in weight loss, retarded growth and nerve damage. Vitamin B1 or Thiamine is found in wheat germ, rice and other whole grains, yeast, dried beans, peas and soybeans. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) plays a central role in the release of energy from food. It helps in maintaining normal appetite, good digestion, healthy skin and good nerve functioning. Riboflavin is also important for growth, red blood cell production, breakdown of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Breeding birds should always have a good supply of vitamin B2 as a low riboflavin content in the eggs can lead to death of the embryos and will certainly result to small nestlings susceptible to disease and of slow growth. A deficiency of vitamin B2 also lead to dry skin, weakness and anemia. Vitamin B2 or Riboflavin is found in milk products eggs, fish, nuts, yeast, legumes, asparagus, seeds and green leafy vegetables.
Vitamin B-Complex also called Hepatis Extractum is made up of a number of water-soluble compounds differing greatly in their structures. Eight of them are of essential importance to an animal’s metabolism. Treatment with antibiotics and sulphonamides can destroy or reduce the availability of the vitamin B-complex, which means that an animal’s diet should be generously supplemented with these vitamins at such times to ensure maintenance of the bodily activities. Most members of the vitamin B-complex are sensitive to warmth and light. An experiment shows the difference:
Image top left: The left tube was hanged to a cage in the shade and darkened with a paper roll. (image top right). The right drinking tube was hanged in a light place with sunshine. Image bottom left: The result the next day can be seen clearly that the additional vitamin has changed through the light.
Drinking water was mixed with a vitamin B-Complex (yellow colour).
© by Wekrue WebDesign 2018
Vitamin B3 (Niacin or Vitamin-PP) assists in the functioning of the digestive system, skin and nerves. Niacin ist also important for the conversion of food to energy. Amino acid Tryptophan is a provitamin of Niacin. A niacin deficiency is characterised by dermatities, loss of weight, retarded, diarrhea and disorders of the central nervous system. Leg disorders, sliped tendons or perosis are frequently observed in birds whose diets contain too little niacin. Niacin is found in nuts, yeast, legumes, asparagus, seeds and green leafy vegetables. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) is required for the synthesis of cortical hormones and important in many enzyme reactions in metabolism. A deficiency of Vitamin B5may lead to necrosis of the adrenal cortex. It is essential that breeding birds receive enough of this vitamin at the beginning of breeding as a deficiency can result in dead embryos or weak chicks. Except for tapioca flour vitamin B5 occurs in many foods of plant and animal origin, as the name indicates (pantothen=from all source) Yeast, green leafy vegetables and flour from green grain have a high content of this vitamin. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) helps build protein and is essential to carbohydrate metabolism. It is needed for the biosynthes is of unsaturated fatty acids and a deficiency can result in a loss of weight. The numerous sypmtoms which a vitamin B6 deficiency can produce, such as  standstill in growth, over-excibility, muscle contractions, neurological disorders of the head and neck muscles, as well as those mentioned above show how essential this vitamin is for the normal bodily activities. Pyridoxine also prevents skin conditions and support the synthesis of antibodies by the immune system. Vitamin B6 is found mainly in plants as pyridoxine and as pyridoxal and pyridoxamin in animal tissues. As vitamin B6 in the pyridoxine form is more effective biologically for birds. Vitamin B7 (Biotin, Vitamin H)  ist better known as biotin. Biotin is necessary for cell growth, the production of fatty acids, and the metabolism of fats and amino acids. Characteristic symptoms of a biotin deficiency are changes in the skin, rough coat and loss of hair. Scabs between a bird’s toes and horn-like material on its bill or beak as well as sores can appear. Rich sources of biotin is found in egg yolk.
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folate) is important for the formation of blood and the maintenance of the nervous system. Like vitamin C and vitamin B12 vitamin B9 plays an important role preventing anemia and in building anti-bodies. Vitamin B9 better known as folic acid, are necessary to ensure healthy growth. A lack to folic acid can lead to rought plumage, loss of feathers and disturbances in the propagation. Bird breeders often have found that a lack of folic acid can lead to poor hatching result after only 5-6 weeks. Vitamin B9 is found in carrots, yeast, egg yolks, beans, whole wheat and green leafy vegetables. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin, Cyanocobalamin) has a decisive influence on all the metabolic processes and is used to treat pernicious and other forms of anaemia. Diseases and symptoms caused by a lack of vitamin B12 are an abnormal blood count, skin diseases, inflamed mucous membranes and uncoordinated movement. Bird breeder should always ensure that their breeding birds have an adequate supply of vitamin B12, as a lack can cause the hatchability to sink to under 50 %. Newly hatched birds are frequently deformed and display fatty degeneration of the liver, kidneys and heart.